"Carriages without horses shall go, And accidents fill the world with woe"
Mother Shipton (16th Century)
Future of the Automobile by Arthur Brisbane,New York Evening Journal,Feb 1903
"In less than fifty years from now the working man, the mechanic and the laborer will go to their work from their cottages in the country in automobiles.
You smile at this?
Don't smile too confidently.
Do you remember when the present model of bicycles first came into fashion?
Who used and paid for the first bicycles, at one hundred dollars or more for each?
The rich men and women.
Who made fun of the first bicycle riders, laughing at their sensible costumes, throwing tacks on bicycle paths, doing everything to delay the manufacture of the cheap bicycle by discouraging those who paid for the first experiments?
You did, you who now laugh, or throw tin cans at the fast automobile did the same for the bicycle, not so many years ago.
And who uses the bicycle now? Get up early in the morning, especially in the country, and you will see the bicycle carrying the mechanic to his work. The cheap bicycle is almost exclusively used by working men. It is used exclusively by the people of moderate means.
The rich have long since tired of it."
Arthur Brisbane, New York Evening Journal, Feb 1903
"Economists Have Long fretted about externalities-the exploitation of common resources by some people at the expense of others. Driving a car in a city and thereby clogging traffic offers a classic example of such an externality, one that can be balanced only by imposing a tax so unpopular that politicians never dared to try it on a large scale, until early this year, when London's mayor, Ken Livingstone, showed the necessary courage. The foray into such social-cost pricing has worked: now that drivers must pay a $8 fee, traffic jams are a third less common and the drivers themselves are happy with the trade-off. Livingston's show of guts and leadership was widely questioned at first, and many commentators thought that he might forfeit his office because of it. Now it looks like he'll be getting another term-and mayors of other big cities, including those on this side of the Atlantic, are taking notice."
-Scientific American Mag Dec 2003
"By 1980 we will be self-sufficient and will not need to rely on foreign enemies....uh, energy."
-Richard M. Nixon (President of the US) responding to the then gas shortage by proclaiming an initiative dubbed "Project Independence." 1973
"American drivers are wasting more time and money in traffic jams than ever before, reports David Schrank of Texas A & M University, and commuters are adjusting to longer travel times rather than phasing in long-term solutions. (2002 study)
Total hours of delay (in billions) 3.5
Total hours of wasted fuel (in billions) 5.7
Cost of congestion (in billions) $63.8
By the year 2030 , 2.3 billion cars could be on the road
Book: "Divorce Your Car" by Stephanie Mills and Craig Scarborough
magazine: "Car Busters" A feisty voice for green cities from Prague
Book: "Oil, God, and Gold: The Story of Aramco and the Saudi Kings" by Anthony Cave Brown
See article: "Auto Amour Out of Control" by Jennifer Harper,Insight,Mar 19,2001
Book: "Asphalt Nation: How the Automobile Took Over America, and How We can Take it Back." by Jane Holtz Kay
Book: "The City After the Automobile" by Moshe Safdie & Wendy Kohn
Book: Taking Charge: The Electric Automobile in America" by Michael Brian Schiffer
Book: "The Wealth of Cities" by Norquist
"It’s all in the numbers: 84% of us say we downright "love" our cars, 72% say cars reflect personalities, 53% keep photos of our cars handy. Almost half-45%-say a car is more important than a spouse.
But wait. In another survey of 2,000 car owners, Goodyear found that 62% talked to their cars. 15% thought their cars were a "member of the family" and 90% had done something special to "pamper" their cars in the last year……
The Traffic Congestion Strangling New York…..Editorial Observer/Ernest Tollerson, NYT…
The world’s fleet of cars will continue to grow….there are currently 625 (now 800 *) million motor vehicles in use around the world, and the population of motor vehicles will grow to 1 Billion before 2025….(The Futurist, Aug/Sept `98)
"Intellectuals tend to hold contempt for cars. It cannot be an accident that the most highly educated, poetical, artistic and generally fancy people are also the group with the highest proportion of non-drivers. I doubt if there is a bank manager in Britain who cannot drive (no letters from exceptions to this rule, please), but non-driving is one of the badges of the creative artist. This is not a matter of convenience-bank managers do not need to move about, artists frequently do-but a question of conviction, or at least of disposition.
To a person who thinks of himself as creative, eccentric, individual, the car symbolizes the herd instinct, the indistinguishable mass, the people who do things simple because everyone else does them. The car is the emblem of the century of the common man, with all its uniformity and trivial comfort."
Charles Moore, ed of the Spectator, Daily Telegraph,.11.8.87
"Robert Moses was by all accounts a remarkably intelligent man, but he wasn't smart enough to comprehend this one basic fact about reliance on the automobile as the basis of mass transportation. For just about the entire forty-four years during which he ruled New York City like a fourth unelected branch of government, Moses was promising that the next bridge or the next highway he built was going to be the solution to the city's traffic problems. Then after that road or bridge got built, a strange thing happened. Within a matter of weeks, traffic would be jammed on the new bridge while at the same time traffic was just as heavy on the bridges which were to be alleviated of that same traffic. Moses' solution was predictable: build more roads and bridges. A strategy like this was bad enough for the relatively open spaces of Long Island, guaranteeing a low-density population that would, in turn, guarantee further dependency on the automobile, which in turn generated more low-density settlement in a vicious circle that would continue for generation to come with no solution to the traffic problem in sight. This strategy was, however, nothing less than catastrophic for the densely populated boroughs of New York City, First of all, since Long Island was one big cul de sac without its own industrial base, the roads Moses built on it necessitated that all the traffic there would converged on Brooklyn and Manhattan in the morning and re-emerge and head eastward in the evening. Because of the size of the automobile, the huge numbers of commuters who shifted from rail traffic to their automobiles were condemned to be stuck in traffic for their entire working lives, and , beyond that , condemned to fight each day for a never-adequate number of parking spaces."
E. Michael Jones
The Slaughter of Cities: Urban Renewal as Ethnic Cleansing
"Ever since our love for machines replaced the love we used to have for our fellow men, catastrophes proceed to increase."
"I think that cars today are almost the exact equivalent of the great Gothic cathedrals: I mean the supreme creation of an era, conceived in image if not in usage by a whole population which appropriates them as a purely magical object."
"The car has become a secular sanctuary for the individual. His shrine to the self, his mobile Walden Pond."
"A study by the World Resources Institute indicates that U.S. government subsidies of automobile use, including construction and maintenance of highways, highway patrols, and other supports to motorists, exceed the taxes paid on motor fuel, vehicle purchases, and license plates by $111 billion per year. This means that automobile driving is being subsidized by those who do not own a car."
Maximum number of miles that Ford's most fuel-efficient 2003 car can drive on a gallon of gas: 36
Maximum number its 1912 Model T could: 35
(Harper's Index Sept 2003)
"Everything in life is somewhere else, and you get there in a car."
"The car has become an article of dress without which we feel uncertain, unclad, and incomplete."
TRAFFIC JAMS in the U.S. consumed an estimated 1.6 billion lost work hours in 1989 and will consume 8.1 billion work hours by 2005. During 1997 traffic gridlock cost $51 billion in lost wages and wasted fuel. Things will only get worse as the number of motor vehicles and the population increase and trip-generation per household escalates.(The Futurist, Aug/Sept 98)
Annual cost of U.S. Automobile crashes=$260 billion
11 weeks in the car spent annually commuting
"By 2020, traffic fatalities will be the world's third leading cause of death after heart disease and tobacco smoke and ahead of HIV/AIDS, according to a recent report by the Global Burden of Disease Project (GBD) ,cosponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank. More than 1 million people are killed on the world's roads each year..."
"Starting with the estimated annual $2.6 billion cost of traffic congestion in Atlanta in 1999, Krugman calculates the decision by one person to commute by car in Atlanta now imposes on others an additional congestion cost of $3500 per year-or $14 per workday. This each driver's part of the indirect or social costs per person of traffic congestion in Atlanta."
Lester R. Brown
"I call petroleum the devil's excrement, it brings trouble....Look at this locura-waste, corruption, consumption, our public services falling apart, and debt, debt we shall have for years."
Juan Pablo Perez Alfonso (a founder of OPEC)
"Oil kindles extraordinary emotions and hopes, since oil is above all a great temptation of ease, wealth, strength, fortune, power. It is a filthy, foul-smelling liquid that squirts obligingly up into the air and falls back to the earth as a rustling shower of money. To discover and possess the sources of oil is to feel as if, after wandering long under-ground, you have stumbled on a royal treasure. Not only do you become rich, but you are also visited by the mystical conviction that some higher power has looked upon you with the eye of grace and magnanimously elevated you above the others....In this sense, oil is a fairy tale and like every fairy tale, a bit of a lie."
Shah of Shahs
"If there is no oil worth developing, the producer's money has been wasted. If there will be large development producing profits, the landowner wishes he had held out for much more.....This is the great divide of the petroleum industry: a rich discovery means a dissatisfied landlord."
-Professor M.A. Adelman, 1972
"The federal government owns most of the fuels that are likely to be economically recoverable for the foreseeable future. The federal government's gross failure to exercise its responsibility as the proprietor of these fuels, even to know what it owns, and to devise speedy methods of bringing these fuels to market without ruining the earth is a major cause of our energy crisis."
-S. David Freeman, 1974 Director of the Energy Policy Staff of the Office of Science and Technology in the Nixon White House
"Oil is for the Arabs! Why do you not exploit your lost wealth which is being plundered by aliens? Remember that the oil which flows under your land is seized by your enemy! Remember oil, your lost wealth! Oil is for the Arabs!"
-A Nasser slogan on Radio Cairo in the 1960's
"For our part, we do not want the (oil) majors to lose their power and be forced to abandon their roles as a buffer element between the producers and the consumers. We want the present set-up to continue as long as possible and at all costs to avoid any disastrous clash of interests which would shake the foundations of the oil business."
-King Faisal,( spoken by his oil minister, Sheikh Yamani, 1969)
"The control of oil, the lifeblood of an advanced industrial state, by potentates who have no other instrument of power and who are accountable to nobody, morally, politically or legally, is in itself a perversity. It is a perversity in the sense that it defies all rational principles by which the affairs of states and the affairs of humanity ought to be regulated to put into a few irresponsible hands power over life and death of a whole civilization."
-Hans Morgenthau, 1975
"The U.S.....had not run out of energy in the early 1970's. Rather , by a complicated series of actions and inactions, it had increasingly chosen an increasing foreign dependency."
-General George A. Lincoln, 1976 Head of Office of Emergency Preparedness during the Nixon administration
"The producing nations now have a cartel tolerated by the consuming countries and actively supported by the United States."
-M.A. Adelman, 1972, professor of economics, M.I.T. (Still true in 2005)
"The consensus was that the public acknowledged my intelligence and integrity, my ability to articulate problems and to devise good solutions to them, but doubted my capacity to follow through with a strong enough thrust to succeed. Most of this doubt about me had risen from the struggle over energy, with my repeated exhortations and lack of final action by Congress. It was not pleasant for me to hear this, but I felt their analysis was sound."
"Having planted the desert with sun heat absorbers at a cost of $98 odd billion, let us look at what we have secured at this enormous cost, and let us see whether we have made a good investment.
We would have plant that is worth to us at least as much as all the coal and oil fields in the whole world, because it can perpetually give us as much heat and power as all the coal fields and oil fields of the world put together, if mined at the current rate. And these are certainly worth very much more than $98 billion.
This vast investment would not be made for or by the individual, but for and by the entire human race, and we may safely assume the human race to survive all the coal and oil fields by many thousands of years. Hence, its overwhelming value of perpetuity and its capacity for practically infinite expansion.
To the individual $98 billion is a staggering sum, but to the human race, particularly if spread out through a period of say 200 years, it is almost nothing. The human race has expended in coal mines and oil mines and boiler and heating plants many times that sum during the last century alone.
I feel sure that the greatest developments in sun power will come when the minds of many thousands of thinkers will be turned in this direction by the results of our work. We do not expect to do it all alone. All we shall now do is to establish sun power as a commercial rival of coal in those portions of the true tropics where coal is very expensive and the sun is very powerful.
One thing I feel sure of and that is that the human race must finally utilize sun power or revert to barbarism, and I would recommend all far-sighted engineers and inventors to work in this direction to their own profit, and the eternal welfare of the human race."
Frank Schuman 1911
The Power of Light: The Epic Story of Man's Quest to Harness the Sun" by Frank T. Kryza
"Sometimes it seems as though our political leaders have no consistency, no coherence, no staying power, no theory that puts it all together-only ambition and anxiety."
-Meg Greenfield, 1980 Newsweek
"We study the archeological sites of civilizations that moved onto economic paths that were environmentally destructive and could not make the needed course corrections in time. We face the same risk."
Lester R. Brown
"A road of opportunity….the stenographer in Suitland will be able to drive to the Pentagon without finding the day ruined almost before it begins."
(Speech by Federal Highway Administrator on the occasion of the opening of the Washington Beltway 1964)
"The dream turned to nightmare. The great Belt tightened to the point where right now it resembles nothing less than a noose around the communal neck….We could die on the Beltway and rot until vultures pick clean our bones."
The Washington Post –1976
"But Moses deliberately thwarted the development of rail traffic, partially perhaps because the bridge and tunnel authorities he controlled received tribute every time an automobile crossed them, something which is not an isolated event in a city of 14 million built on islands and a peninsula. One highway lane could carry 1,500 cars an hour. One railroad line could bring 40,000 to 50,00 people per hour into the city, and when they arrived by train, they didn't have to find parking spaces.
But Robert Moses hated trains, and by thwarting rail transportation, he created a highway system that was self-defeating from the day it carried traffic. A Scotsman by the name of F. Dodd McHugh tried to explain this to Moses during the planning stages of the Van Wyck Expressway, which was to link Idlewild )later renamed Kennedy) Airport with Manhattan. For each day of its operation, the airport had to accommodate 40,000 employees and 30,000 air travelers. This meant that during peak periods 10,000 people per hour would be converging on the airport. Unfortunately, the peak carrying capacity of the Van Wyck Expressway under optimum conditions was 2,630 vehicles per hour, man of which contained one passenger. Given these statistics, it was clear that the airport traffic alone would overwhelm the Van Wyck Expressway, and added to that there was the commuter traffic which peaked in the morning and evening, prime arrival and departure times."
E. Michael Jones
The Slaughter of cities
"The typical American spends over 1,600 hours a year in his car. This includes the time spent behind the wheel, moving or stopped, the hours of work needed to pay for it and for gasoline, tires, tolls, insurance, fines, and taxes…..For this American it takes 1,600 hours to cover a year total of 6,000 miles, four miles per hour. This is just as fast as a pedestrian and slower than a bicycle."
Energy & Equity
"The automobile has not merely taken over the street, it has dissolved the living tissue of the city. Its appetite for space is absolutely insatiable; moving and parked, it devours urban land, leaving the buildings as mere islands of habitable space in a sea of dangerous and ugly traffic…..Gas-filled, noisy and hazardous, our streets have become the most inhumane landscape in the world."
James Marston Fitch
"The slavery of hours spent commuting in a car each day can no longer masquerade as freedom."
Richard Ayres (11 weeks in 2002)
"A hundred years ago there were six highly experimental cars. Today there are close to 400 million* cars on the planet: set bumper to bumper on a six-lane highway, they would stretch well over 200,000 miles, more than eight times around the earth."
* 800 Million now (2005)
"In 1938, Los Angeles was still a city of clean Pacific Ocean air. It had the largest electric rail system in the world. The "Big Red Cars" of Pacific electric serviced the San Fernando Valley; more than a thousand trains left the downtown area each day. General Motors, joining with Standard Oil of California and Firestone, the tire manufacturer, bought up the transit company and closed it down. Los Angeles grew around the roads and not the railroads. A few remnants of the transit system are still visible alongside the clogged freeways today."
"We are too big to be inconvenienced by these pitiful international squabbles."
GM President Alfred Sloan (at the outbreak of WWII)
"The car allows Americans to persist in the delusion that civic life is unnecessary. As a practical matter, the regime is putting us out of business as a civilization."
James Howard Kunstler
Home from Nowhere
"Americans are amazingly unconscious of how destructive the automobiles has been to their everyday world."
James Howard Kunstler
"The car-centered, car-dominated, human habitat can now be viewed-like Leninist economics-as an experiment that has failed."
James Howard Kunstler
Books: The Going Rate: What it really cost us to drive….by James J. MacKenzie
Road Kill: How Solo Driving Runs Down the Economy
"The original benefits of automobiles were thought to be convenience, freedom of mobility, and comfort. The first two things vanished under the regime of compulsory commuting. What is left of comfort amounts to little more than air-conditioned imprisonment. I believe that our utter dependence on the Automobile must and will come to an end. Society can no longer afford the cultural phenomenon of mandatory mass car ownership."
James Howard Kunstler
"Hydrogen-powered fuel-cell vehicles could also serve as portable power stations. A full fleet of them, when parked (about 96% of the time), would have enough generating capacity to displace the world’s coal and nuclear power plants 5-10 times over. They could help pay for themselves through electricity sales, while halting up to two-thirds of climate change. As fuel-cell pioneer Geoffrey Ballard, Shell Hydrogen CEO Don Huberts, and ex-Saudi Oil Minister Sheikh Yamani successively remarked, the Stone Age did not end because the world ran out of stones, and the Oil Age will not end because the world runs out of oil."
Manila, Phillipines (AP) Religious cultists convinced that flat tires were the key to salvation deflated tires on scores of buses and cars Monday, paralyzing traffic throughout the city.
Police arrested 32 people. Terrified motorists abandoned their vehicles and fled for cover as armed police chased the cultists, who swarmed through the stalled traffic deflating more tires. Other cultists flagged won buses and then let the air out of the tires before drivers could stop them.
The mass deflating began during the evening rush hour and created massive traffic jams. Hours later, traffic was still at a standstill on major thoroughfares.
It was unclear what purpose the cultists thought was served by the bizarre strategy. When pressed for an explanation they said only that cult leader Alelio Bernaldez Pen told them it was God’s will.
"This is God’s order to let out air," said Honora Dimagila, 44, who was arrested Monday. "Air is from God. This is the solution to the crisis in our country"……..
SEOUL’S TRAFFIC PROMPTS EMERGENCY MEASURES by Steven R. Weisman (NYT)
"Vigorous Development of private cars will effectively help ease the strain on urban traffic….The development of private cars and the gradual replacement of bicycles by cars will enable Chinese cities to realize traffic modernization."
Beijing Review….Dec 12 1994
EFFICIENT CARS=SICK CITIES
*Dear Environmental Leaders: Stop Beating the
Dead Dog and Move On
By Richard Register of Ecocity Builders
Reading the San Francisco Chronicle today was a truly depressing experience ("SF Anti-War Groups Turn Focus to Ford," Sat, May 31,2003)
Casting about for something to do to carry on the momentum of the peace movement environmentalists are going to attack the Ford Motor Company and start a campaign to increase cars' gas mileage. Over the last 30 years I've seen these campaigns pop up from time to time sponsored by the large environmental organizations. They have never worked and never will. Sprawl and automobile dependence, numbers of cars and total petrol consumption keeps getting worse. Insofar as they might work, such campaigns in fact work to make things worse, not better.
Dear environmentalists, what exactly is wrong with you? What prevents you from seeing what I and many other whole systems thinkers have been saying for decades? In focusing your efforts on attacking SUVs and supporting energy-efficient cars you are promoting sprawl, climate change, species extinction and war. it is almost unbelievable to me that you are still promoting sprawl after all these years. it is not the energy-efficient car but the energy-efficient city that we need.
Make the car more energy efficient and you create more sprawl on down the line a couple years by making driving cars easier, cheaper and rationalized as a good thing. It is intrinsically a rotten thing and cannot be reformed. Give up on it and place your energies where they are needed.
Is it a paradox that the energy-efficient car makes the city become less energy efficient? No. It is simply the way whole systems work. Please start thinking about it very seriously. If your bottom line is promoting sincerity in energy conservation and trying to warm people up to that larger idea, do it effectively, not counter-effectively. Get them, too, to begin thinking holistically, ecologically.
Four years ago I tried to interest some of you leaders of the larger environmental organizations in focusing on the "ecological" or "whole systems" approach that understands that cars are part of a structure that cannot be dealt with successfully if we are pretending they are not a part of a system in which they fit and have a critical function.
Four years ago I proposed a "Roll Back Sprawl" campaign that would identify the restoration and development tools we have that can reshape cities and in various places are doing just that in small ways, and isolated pockets. These tools are policies, practices and leading physical projects from cities around the world. They are very successful in their limited application and are begging for support and attention. They can change the world-and will if you ever wake up and help develop and apply them. These tools are very pedestrian friendly, creative, positive and help with social justice issues and humanize our communities as well as contribute to a healthy natural environment. They include transfer of development rights, ecological zoning maps, carfree by contract housing, ecological demonstration projects, major restoration projects articulated with development in pedestrian/public transport areas that support "green" technologies and more
Four years ago, you said a Roll Back Sprawl campaign couldn't be done, or didn't want to work with me, or wouldn't try it on your own. But as far as I am concerned, you were then and are now acting about as smart as a person who believes we can run trains without tracks. Try driving one of those things on a beach, a country road or even a city street. Trains and tracks are integral to one another and part of synergistic whole system depending on both the vehicle and the vehicle support system, which includes the fuel delivery system as well as other components. Try imagining cars without sprawl and highways and streets provided for them. Stuff them into happy pedestrian environments? Cram them into a carfree city like Venice, Italy? It makes no sense. The system they are part of is a killer. Cars and sprawl are integrally linked-"improving" one promotes the other-while destroying environments and people, in both "peace" and war.
For 30 years I have been talking about the ecological connections in cities. I have lost my patience. It strikes me as intentional ignorance, stupidity or extraordinarily bad strategy that you are still beating the dead dog of making cars more efficient when you should gather your tools and your courage and start educating the people that we need to-and can-reshape our cities, so they don't need this obscene glut of cars. You are leading people astray, giving them false hope, leading them to confusion, delaying our day of solving this problem-while meantime the biosphere is rapidly collapsing.
It was just after the Oil Crisis of 1973 that cars did get significantly more efficient and in the next 15 years sprawl took off faster than ever. Now we have had our Second Oil War (third if you count Afghanistan as a means to secure the pipeline from Central Asia to the Indian Ocean-what a great excuse, 9/11!) and you are ready to rationalize cars all over again and claim they can be made better. The better car makes a worse city and world. Period. Wake up. Help other people wake up.
Thirty years is a long time for me to be yammering ineffectually. Over that period, virtually all of you have at one time or another given me what you intended to be a compliment of sorts, and I took it as such: "Richard, you are just ahead of your time." And thank you for crediting me with some insight, that you think I'm basically right if somehow out of step.
But the truth is that I am not ahead of my times-the times call for jut what I'm trying to do with only very small success. And the truth is also that you are failing to look a conspicuous situation in the eye and buckle down to dealing with it honestly and energetically. Thirty years is a long time for my failure to communicate with you to continue-maybe I should have been nastier, more outspoken, smarter in some way that has eluded me, less polite, less patient. Maybe then I could have made a difference.
But your failure is greater than mine because you have more power to effect change and you have taken off yet again down the wrong road. Of course it is a difficult task, making peace between people and between people and the planet. But we can do it if we put this fantasy away, this fantasy that we can improve things by improving the car. Stop wasting the time that is quickly running out and start creating cities for people, not cars."
Richard Register is president of Ecocity Builders
Book: "On The Move: Transportation and the American Story" by J.F. Davidson & M.S. Sweeney
Book: "Plato’s Garage…by Rob Campbell
Book: "The Party's Over: Oil, War and the Fate of Industrial Societies" by Richard Heinberg
Book: "Carfree Cities" by Anna Semlyen
Book: Asphalt Nation: How the Automobile Took Over America and How We Can Take it Back" by Jane Holtz Kay
Book: "Divorce Your Car; Ending the Love Affair With the Automobile" by Katie Alvord
Book: "Bicycle: The History" by David V. Herlihy
Book: "The Quotable Cyclist: Great Moments of Bicycling Wisdom, Inspiration ,and Humor" Ed. by Bill Strickland
Book: "Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence" by Peter Newman and Jeff Kenworthy
Book" Ecocities: Building Cities in Balance with Nature
Book: "The End of the Road" by Wolfgang Zuckermann
Book: "On The Move: Great Transportation Photographs from LIFE" ED. by M. Kormely & J. Hirschfield
Book: the Future of Oil as a Source of Energy" Published by the Emirates Center for Strategic Studies
Book: "The Car That Could: The Inside Story of GM's Revolutionary Electric Vehicle" by Michael Shnayerson
Book: "Taking Charge: The Electric Automobile in America" Michael Brian Schiffer
Book: "Locomotive" by Brian Solomon
Book: "Maglev: A New Approach" by Richard F. Post in Scientific American Jan 2000
Book: "The Bicycle" by Pryor Dodge
Book: "Bicycle: Around the World" by Linda Svendsen
Book: "Locomotives: The World's Railways" by Christopher Chant
Book: "The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Steam & Rail" by C. Garratt & M. Wade-Matthews
Book: "Rapid Transit Systems: The World's Railways" by Christopher Chant
Book: "The City Beneath Us: Building the New York Subways" by New York Transit Museum with V. Heller
Book: "The World's Railroads: The History and Development of Rail Transport" by Christopher Chant
Book: "Famous Trains of the 20th Century" by Christopher Chant
Book: "The History of Ships" by Peter Kemp
Book: "Canals" by Robert J. Kapsch
Book: "High and Mighty: Suvs-the World's Most Dangerous Vehicles and How They Got That Way." by Keith Bradsher
Book: "The Hydrogen Economy: The Creation of the World-Wide Energy Web and the Redistribution of Power on Earth" by Jeremy Rifkin
Book: "Blood and Oil: The Dangers and Consequences of America's Growing Petroleum Dependency" by Michael T. Klare
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