"There can be no high civilization where there is not ample leisure."

            Henry Ward Beecher


"Civilizations can only be understood by those who are civilized."

-Alfred North Whitehead


"Sometimes the cause of civilization is best served by a hard stare into the soul of its opposite."

-Michael Pollan

The Botany of Desire


"The fact is , that civilization requires slaves. The Greeks were quite right there. Unless there are slaves to do the ugly, horrible, uninteresting work, culture and contemplation become almost impossible. Human slavery is wrong, insecure, and demoralizing. On mechanical slavery, on the slavery of the machine, the future of the world depends."

Oscar Wilde

The Soul of Man Under Socialism (1895)


"The source of material civilization is developed power. If one has this developed power at hand, then a use for it will easily be found....The way to liberty; the way to equality of opportunity, the way from empty phrases to actualities, lies through power; the machine is only an incident."

-Henry Ford (1926)


"We want more school houses and less jails; more books and less arsenals; more learning and less vice; more constant work and less crime; more leisure and less greed; more justice and less revenge; in fact, more of the opportunities to cultivate our better natures, to make manhood more noble, womanhood more beautiful and childhood more happy and bright. These in brief are the primary demands made by the Trade Unions in the name of labor. These are the demands made by labor upon modern society and in their consideration is involved the fate of civilization."

-Samuel Gompers 1893


   "A man, or a society, is civilized if truth, beauty, adventure, art, peace are the dominant qualities, and if these five qualities are exhibited in all phases of experience."

-A.H. Johnson 

Whitehead's Philosophy of Civilization


"The meaning of the evolution of civilization is no longer obscure to us. It must present the struggle between Eros and Death, between the instinct of life and the instinct of destruction, as it works itself out in the human species. This struggle is what all life essentially consists of."

Sigmund Freud

Civilization and its Discontents



"The greatest advances in human civilization have come when we recovered what we had lost: when we learned the lessons of history."

Winston Churchill


"Our word ' civilization' goes back to a Latin root having to do with ' citizen' and 'city' The Chinese counterpart, actually  binom, wen hua, literally means 'the transforming [i.e. civilization] influence of writing. ' In other words, for us the essence of civilization is urbanization; For the Chinese it is the art of writing."

            Derek Bodde
            Professor of Chinese
            University of Pennsylvania


"Civilization is founded on some sort of theory of the universe, and can be restored only through a spiritual Awakening and a will for ethical good in the mass of man."

Albert Schweitzer

The Philosophy of Civilization


"A man, or a society , is civilized if Truth, Beauty, adventure, art, and peace are the dominant qualities."

Alfred North Whitehead

Whiteheads Philosophy of Civilization by A.H. Johnson



"....the truth about industrialized countries is that they only seem to appear to be true civilizations, but in fact they are not; because more and more, at the end of the 20th Century and at the beginning of the third millennium, they will disregard all True Love, True Freedom, and True Wisdom as well as true peace along with all values of humaneness and all values of men's and women's True being."

-Bill Meier


"Unless we can bring men back to enjoying the daily life which moderns call a dull life, our whole civilization will be in ruin in about fifteen years. Unless we can make daybreak and daily bread and the creative secrets of labor interesting in themselves, there will fall on all our civilization a fatigue which is the one disease from which civilizations do not recover."

-G.K. Chesterton


"Civilization, that shriveled runt of human aspirations....that bitch, inventor of railways, prisons, enema pumps, cream cakes , of royalty and guillotine"

-Flaubert 1837


"The role of Islam in the creation of civilization is perhaps most readily appreciated by paying special tribute to one of the grandest eras of all; Islamic Spain. The Muslims entered Spain in the 8th century. They found it inhabited by primitive societies, who were culturally and intellectually backward. Their arrival was welcomed by the populous, which was suffering direly under repressive rule. Within 30 years they noticeably renovated the society. Within a century they transformed it into one of the most grand, advanced civilizations ever to inhabit the earth. Its great cities, Cordova, Seville, Toledo, and Granada, became the centers for the dissemination of knowledge and the advancement of civilization for five complete centuries."

Dr. Kasem Khaleel

The Arab Connection


   "Tenth century Muslim Cordova was a huge city with nearly one million inhabitants. With its paved streets complete with street lamps. 70 public libraries, numerous universities, and 800 public baths it was according to Peter Mansfield, "the most splendid city on the continent." The significance of this in respect to the development of human civilization is underscored by the fact that during that same period major cities in Europe were mere towns, inhabiting no more than 30,000 to 50,000 people at best estimates."



   "However, to state that Islam "created" civilization is somewhat misleading. This is because Islam continues to create civilization. In fact, it exists with us today. It thrives amongst us in the form of the most prominent modern institutions: the postal service, the monetary unit, the bank, public education, the university, the observatory, and the library. It advances us with mathematics, physics, medicine, philosophy, ethics, liberality, and morality. It refines us with sophistication, manners, and culture. It protects and beautifies us with soft cotton, fine leather, fur lined boots, and patterned silk. It cleanses us with running water, the hand towel, the handkerchief, the table napkin, the toothbrush, soap, deodorant and toiletries. It nourishes us with spinach, asparagus, peaches, watermelon, oranges, grapefruit, lemons, bananas rice, strawberries, apricots, fruit juice, herbal teas, ginger, cinnamon, spices, and almonds. It relaxes us with soft music, floral gardens, water fountains, fine bedding, and the sofa. It defines us with intellect, justice , and the moral code. It medicates us with essential oils, herbal remedies, tinctures, ointments, flower essences, and the balanced diet. it educates us with encyclopedias, atlases, almanacs, globes, textbooks, journals, and the university. Thus, if an individual is distressed about Islamic revival, his/hr fear is particularly bizarre, because this is how we live today.

   Yet, Islam, as a political/governmental system, fails to exist today. What's more, the fragments of it which do exist are not found in the so-called Muslim countries. Rather, the remnants of Islam are found in Western civilization in the form of law and order, fine goods, commerce, free trade, and social sophistication. In fact, the United States, with its high rate of literacy, freedom of speech, public education, public sanitation, law -based civilization, and organized social structure, exhibits a greater degree of "Islam" than any of the various countries of "Muslim" inhabitants. After all, it was Islam which provoked the West to leap from social degradation to the realm of advanced civilization, a fact which has been thoroughly proven by the writings of a wide range of historians, including Goldstein, Sarton, Durant, Humbolt, Renan, Bernal, Hill, Turner, and countless others. What's more, as a result of the enormous revolution in the production of scientific data Islam's influence upon Western civilization is continuous and pervasive: the establishment of the Arabic numerals, upon which all computerization depends, is merely one example. Ironically, the United States and other Western countries reap uncountable benefits from Islam, while waging an aggressive campaign to prevent it from benefiting the people who need it the most: those in primitive societies as well as the impoverished Third World."

Dr. Kasem Khaleel

The Arabian Connection


Survival means continual new creative activity in the arts and sciences and the maintenance of civility in social life.  "Some cities are really successful, and present the solid and definite achievement of the thing at which their builders aimed; and when they do this, they present, just as a fine statue presents, something of the direct divinity of man, something immeasurably superior to mere nature, to mere common mountains, to mere vulgar seas.  The modern city is ugly, not because it is a city, but because it is not enough of a city, because it is a jungle, because it is confused and anarchic, and surging with selfish and materialistic energies. In short, the modern town is offensive because it is a great deal too like nature.

            G. K. Chesterton


"Talk about Dante's Hell, and all the horrors and cruelties of the torture-chamber of the lost! The man who walks with open eyes and with a bleeding heart through the shambles of our civilization needs no such fantastic images of the poet to teach him horror. Often and often, when I have seen the young and the poor and the helpless go down before my eyes into the morass, trampled underfoot by beasts of prey in human shape that haunt these regions, it seemed as if God were no longer in His world, but than in His stead reigned a field, merciless as Hell, ruthless as the grave. Hard it is, no doubt, to read in Stanley's pages of the slave-traders coldly arranging for the surprise of a village, the capture of the inhabitants, the massacre of those who resist, and the violation of all the women; but the stony streets of London, if they could speak, would tell of tragedies as awful, of ruin as complete, of ravishments as horrible, as if they were in Central Africa; only the ghastly devastation is covered, corpselike, with the artificialities and hypocrisies of modern civilization . "

Darkest England and the way out
William Booth   taken from Clyde Manschreck,
A History of Christianity
Englewood Cliff, N,J. , 1964)      pp. 419


"The City which cannot be expunged from the mind is like an armature, a honeycomb in whose cells each of us can place the things he wants to remember: the names of famous men, virtues, numbers, vegetable and mineral classifications, dates of battles, constellations, parts of speech."

Italo Calvino

Invisible Cities


"For some time it has been fashionable to believe that civilized society has evolved from primitive savagery....This fashion is now on the wane. We are more disposed to believe that man, as man, emerged very quickly and reached almost at once a state of high intellectual and spiritual development. Then a series of calamities, both moral and physical, overwhelmed him....and those calamities caused a rapid degeneration in different parts of the earth."



"The essence of civilization is dullness. Indeed, civilization is only an elaborate invention....for abolishing the fierce passions, the unchastened enjoyments....the excitements of a barbarous age, and to substitute for them indoor pleasures, placid feelings, and rational amusements."

Walter Bagehot


"It is by no means certain that there has ever (in the sense required) been more than one civilization in all history. It is at least arguable that every civilization we find has been derived from another civilization and, in the last resort, from a single centre-"carried" like an infectious disease or like the Apostolical succession."

C.S. Lewis

The Abolition of Man


"The big cities of America are becoming Third World countries."

-Nora Ephron


"City Life. Millions of people being lonesome together"

-Henry David Thoreau


"Many clever men like you have trusted to civilization. Many clever Babylonians, clever Egyptians, Many clever men at the end of Rome. Can you tell me, in a world that is flagrant with the failures of civilization, what there is particularly immortal about yours;

            G. K. Chesterton


" I thought of the way that our own culture had distorted and abused the word 'civilized' in relation to men and women. Just look around; how weak and unmanly the men had become , how aggressive and unfeminine the women. Why not? Did anyone of experience and honesty really believe, for example, that a real live woman - Our Gal Sundays to the contrary - could find happiness and satisfaction with, say, a Princeton Ph.D. in English?"

            Alan Lelchuk
            American Mischief


"So now we need to dance out the death of industrial civilization

            William Irwin Thompson


"Civilization depends on local control of purchasing power."

            Ezra Pound



"...reason, rational dialogue, and utilitarian calculation of interests play rather minimal roles in civilization: It is seen that, in reality, it is the marvelous and the legendary that are its true supports"

Le Bon

The Crowd



"You can best serve civilization by being against what usually passes for it."

            Wendell Berry


"Islam had to be responsible for the advancement of civilization. It commands that universal philosophy which fertilizes humanity no matter what is its condition. It does so by melding together all of the talents of the world population. It achieves it by brining the best out of the individual, morally, physically, intellectually, and scientifically. Middle Age Christendom had no such record. In fact, it did precisely the opposite. Christian rulers practiced intolerance with a vengeance, deliberately obstructing the advancement of civilization. In the epitome of ignorance organized religion systematically tortured and murdered countless thousands, whose only crimes were to seek the advancement of science. What few scholars existed studied in hiding and absolute fear. Roger Bacon, infamously known in the 13the century as "Doctor Mirabilis," was compelled to leave the study of science and philosophy. He was tabbed by his Western contemporaries as a satanic dabbler. Mobs chided him, yelling for "this sorcerer's hand to be cut off' and "this Muslim to be exiled."'

Dr. Kasem Khaleel

The Arab Connection


"So many holes have been poked in Western Civilization that now that all the hot air is gone and a cold and alien wind is coming in, the civilized elite seem to be drawing deeply into themselves and their old convictions in search of warmth and comfort. In these declining years of the Magnus Annus the most interesting minds seem to have moved on long ago; now only the "intellectuals" are left wrapped in their great coats of Europe and dreaming of leftist politics or the "new" creations of the avant-garde; but these are the warm dreams that come charitably to all those who are about to freeze to death."

            William Irwin Thompson


"Civilization has run out of material, and so everything is in revival: the revival of the twenties with Gatsby, the revival of the thirties with Cole Porter, of the forties with The summer of '42,of the fifties with Last Picture Show, of the sixties with American Graffiti. Since it is hard to revive the seventies before they are over, film-makers have sensed our apocalyptic mood by producing a gaggle of disaster epics."

            William Irwin Thompson


"Civilization is almost exclusively masculine, a civilization of power in which woman has been thrust aside in the shade. Therefore, it has lost its balance and is moving by hopping from war to war. Its motive forces are the forces of destruction and its ceremonials are carried through by an appalling number of human sacrifices. This one-sided civilization is crashing along a series of catastrophes at a tremendous speed because of its one-sidedness. And at last the time has arrived when woman must step in and impart her life’s rhythm to the reckless movement of progress.

            William Irwin Thompson


"What is civilization? I answer, the power of good women."



"Only if we 'know' that we have actually descended into infernal regions where nothing awaits us but 'the cold death of society and the extinguishing of all civilized relations' can we summon the courage and imagination needed for a 'turning around' , a 'metanoia' . This then leads to seeing the world in a new light , namely , as a place where the things modern man continuously talks about and always fails to accomplish can actually be done. "


            E. F. Schumacher
            Quest Magazine


"Life before what we call civilization was characterized by leisure, intimacy with nature, sensual wisdom, and sexual equality."

            Derrick Jensen
            Alternative Press Review


"The balance of Europe can only be restored through a revival of the values on which Western Civilization is based." By and large, our present problem is one of attitudes and . implements. We are remodeling the Alhambra with a steam shovel, and are proud of our yardage. We shall hardly relinquish the shovel, which after all has many good points, but we are in need of gentler and more objective criteria for its successful use. "

            Aldo Leopold
            A Sand Country Almanac


  "Civilization has been an intermittent phenomenon; to this truth we have allowed ourselves to be blinded by the insolence of material success. Many late societies have displayed a pyrotechnic brilliance and a capacity for refined sensation far beyond anything seen in their days of vigor. That such things may exist and yet work against the state of character concerned with choice, which is the anchor of society, is the great lesson to be learned."

Richard M. Weaver

Ideas Have Consequences


"I am no sentimental admirer of the savage state. I do not get my ideas of the untutored children of nature from Rousseau, of Chateaubriand, or Cooper. I am conscious of its material and mental poverty, and its low and narrow range. I believe that civilization is not only the natural destiny of man, but the enfranchisement, elevation, and refinement of all his powers, and think that it is only in such moods as may lead him to envy the cud-chewing cattle, that a man who is free to the advantages of civilization could look with regret upon the savage state.

But , nevertheless, I think no one who will open his eyes to the facts can resist the conclusion that there are in the heart of our civilization large classes with whom the veriest savage could not afford to exchange. It is my deliberate opinion that if, standing on the threshold of being, one were given the choice of entering life as a Tierra del Fuegan, a black fellow of Australia, an Esquimaux in the Arctic Circle, or among the lowest classes in such a highly civilized country as Great Britain, he would make infinitely the better choice in selecting the lot of the savage. For those classes who in the midst of wealth are condemned to want suffer all the privation of the savage, without his sense of personal freedom; they are condemned to more than his narrowness and littleness, without opportunity for the growth of his rude virtues; if their horizon is wider, it is but to reveal blessings that they cannot enjoy."

            Henry George
            Progress & Poverty (1898)


"In the very centers of our civilization to-day are want and suffering enough to make sick at heart whoever does not close his eyes and steel his nerves. Dare we turn to the Creator and ask Him to relieve it? Supposing the prayer were heard, and at the behest with which the universe sprang into being there should glow in the sun a verse sprang into being there should glow in the sun a greater power; new virtue fill the air; fresh vigor the soil; that for every blade of grass that now grows two should spring up, and the seed that now in- creases fifty-fold should increase a hundred-fold! Would poverty be abated or want relieved? Manifestly no! Whatever benefit would accrue would be but temporary. The new powers streaming through the material universe could be utilized only through land. And land, being private property, the classes that now monopolize the bounty of the Creator would monopolize all the new bounty. Land owners would alone be benefited. Rents would increase, but wages would still tend to the starvation point! This is not merely a deduction of political economy; it is a fact of experience. We know it because we have seen it. Within our own times, under our very eyes, that Power which is above all, and in all, and through all; that Power of which the whole universe is but the manifestation; that Power which maketh all things, and without which is not anything made that is made, has increased the bounty which men may enjoy, as truly as though the fertility of nature had been increased. Into the mind of one came the thought that harnessed steam for the service of mankind
To the inner ear of another was whispered the secret that compels the lightning to bear a message round the globe. In every direction have the laws of matter been revealed; in every department of industry have arisen arms of iron1890 and fingers of steel, whose effect upon the production of wealth has been precisely the same as an increase in the fertility of nature. What has been the result? Simply that land owners get all the gain. The wonderful discoveries and inventions of our century have neither increased wages nor lightened toil. The effect has simply been to make the few richer; the many more helpless!"

            Henry George


"We cannot go on permitting men to vote and forcing them to tramp. We cannot go on educating boys and girls in our public schools and then refusing them the right to earn an honest living. We cannot go on prating of the inalienable rights of man and then denying the inalienable right to the bounty of the Creator. Even now, in old bottles the new wine begins to ferment, and elemental forces gather for the strife!"

            Henry George 1878


"But what is civilization?  As I worked I became clear about the connection between civilization and world-view (Weltanschauung) , and I recognized that the catastrophe of civilization started from a catastrophe of world-view."

            Out of My Life and Thought
            Henry Holt & Co.


"Civilization is hooped together, brought

Under a rule, under the semblance of peace

By manifold illusion; but man's life is thought,

And he, despite his terror, cannot cease

Ravening through century after century,

Ravening, raging, and uprooting that he may come

Into the desolation of reality."



"Civilization is nothing else than the attempt to reduce force to being the last resort. . ."direct action" consists in inverting the order and proclaiming violence as the first resort, or strictly as the solid resort. It is the norm which proposes the annulment of all norms. . .It is the Magna Charta of barbarism."

Jose Ortega Y Gasset (1930)
Revolt of the Masses


" Humanity has run after every bit of hope and knowledge. Yet, after three thousand years of search and worry and heartbreak After thousands of years of concentration upon the riddle of the nature of man, humanity finds itself exactly where it started,, confessing utter ignorance. The mother is still helpless in the face of a nightmare which harasses her child. And the physician is still helpless in the face of such a small thing as a runny nose."

            Wilhelm Reich


"The twentieth century makes a fetish of civilization and is over- whelmed by its own fabrications; its gods are of its own fashioning. Humanity has forgotten how infinitesimal, how impermanent, and how ignorant it actually is, Ptolemy has been ridiculed for conceiving the earth to be the center of the universe, yet modern civilization is seemingly founded upon the hypothesis that the planet earth is the most permanent and important of the heavenly spheres. "

            Manly P. Hall
            The Secret Teachings of all the Ages


"What do you think the city of tomorrow will be? In 1969 the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence made alarming predictions. You will live in a city where everyone has guns, houses will be protected by grills and spy equipment and armed citizen patrols will be necessary. The political extremes will be small armies. Buses will have to carry armed guards . There will be hatred and war between the races and between the rich and poor. In other words, your city will be a place of terror."

            Roger Lamphear


"Every city has been a Babylon, and every city has been a New Jerusalem, and it has always been a question whether the Babylon would extirpate the New Jerusalem or the New Jerusalem would extirpate the Babylon,"

            Rev. Lyman Abbot


"The passage from barbarism into civilization is long, halting, and unsure . It is a hard climb from the practice of devouring one 's enemies to the injunction to love them. But in that lone ascent there is a great divide which is reached when men discover, declare, and acknowledge, however much they may deny it in practice, that there is a Golden Rule which is the ultimate and universal criterion of human conduct. For then, and then only, is there a standard to which all can repair who seek to transform the incessant and indecisive Struggle for domination and survival into the security of the Good Society."

            Walter Lippmann
            The Good Society


Whence shall come the new barbarians? Go through the squalid quarters of great cities, and you may see, even now, their gathering hordes! How shall learning perish? Men will cease to read, and books will kindle fires and be turned into cartridges.
It is startling to think how slight the traces that would be left of our civilization did it pass through the throes which have accompanied the decline of every previous civilization. Paper will not last like parchment, nor more are our most massive buildings and monuments to be compared in solidity with the rock-hewn temples and titanic edifices of the old civilizations" And invention has given us, not merely the steam engine and the printing press, but petroleum, nitro-glycerin, and dynamite. Yet to hint, to-day, that our civilization may possibly be tending to decline, seems like the wildness of pessimism. The special tendencies to which I have alluded are obvious to thinking men, as with the great masses, the belief in substantial progress is yet deep and strong-a fundamental belief which admits not the shadow of a doubt. It is also, it seems to me, instructive to note how inadequate and utterly misleading would be the idea of our civilization which could be gained from the religious and funereal monuments of our time, which are all we have from which to gain our ideas of the buried civilizations.

            Henry George 1878

"The truth is that we have had a barrier put to our aspirations, for now the individual is no longer important, whether here or in the East. In Germany, in America, to a lesser extent in Britain, the individual has long been little more than a marketing unit, a gullet that needs feeding, a body that needs clothing, housing, transporting and providing with as much medicinal pap and pre-packed pleasure as it can be induced to swallow- all in the interests of higher company profits. In the so-called Socialist states he is an integer of another sort, an underpaid, under trained, undervalued and completely un-individual unit in the service of a state that as far as one can tell has no function except to exist.

The West is perhaps the slightly more preferable organism because at least it provides many of its proles with a greater degree of comfort and the illusion of importance. The East has committed the greater betrayal because it started by making the greater promises."

            William Woods
            Poland Eagle in the East
            Hill & Wang N.Y. Pub


"This drama must end, days, years, and centuries follow fast; even the drama of civilization must have an end."

A letter from William Tecumseh Sherman to William F. Cody


"After all, civilization is a kind of dream. Supposing a man suddenly woke up from that dream? Wouldn't it be enough to make him commit suicide?"

            Colin Wilson
            The Mind Parasites



"Maalbowges (VIII Circle of Hell-Dante's Inferno) is, I think, after a rather special manner, the image of the City in corruption: the progressive disintegration of every social relationship, personal and public. Sexuality, ecclesiastical and civil office, language, ownership, counsel, authority, psychic influence, and material inter-dependence-all the media of the community' s exchange are perverted and falsified, till nothing remains but the descent into the final abyss where faith and trust are wholly and for ever extinguished. "

            Dorothy L. Sayers


"As long as our civilization is essentially one of property, of fences, of exclusiveness, it will be mocked by delusions. Our riches will leave us sick; there will be bitterness in our laughter, and our wine will burn our mouth. Only that good profits which we can taste with all doors open, and which serves all men."



"New York makes one think of the collapse of civilization, about Sodom and Gomorrah, the end of the world. The end wouldn't come as a surprise here. Many people already are banking on it."

-Saul Bellow


"She always associated Babylon with New York, and she wished now, that she lived in Manhattan, where one could die in a bright millisecond, without suffering, without risking the indignity of panic."

-Pat Frank  Alas, Babylon


"The end of the human race will be that it will eventually die of civilization."



"Nearly all citizens of civilized countries now enjoy the use of good roads, germ-free water, police protection, free libraries and probably free education of a kind. To an increasing extent the rich and the poor read the same books, and they also see the same films and listen to the same radio programmes. The difference in their way of life have been diminished by the mass-production of cheap clothes and improvements in housing. The place to look for the germs of the future England is in light-industry areas and along the arterial roads. In Slough, Dageham, Barnet, Letchworth, hayes-everywhere, indeed, on the outskirts of great towns-the old patter is gradually changing into something new. In those vast new wildernesses of glass and brick there is a rather restless, culture-less life, centering round tinned food, Picture Post, the radio and the internal combustion engine."

-George Orwell

The Lion and the Unicorn (1941)


"The destruction of human civilization, even without the biological destruction of the human species, may perhaps rightly be called the end of the world, since it would be the end of that sum of cultural achievements and human relationships which constitutes what many people mean when they speak of "the world".

-Jonathan Schell

Fate of the Earth


Book: "Holding Up a Mirror: How Civilizations Decline" by Anne Glyn-Jones

Book: "Cities" by John Reader

Book: "Dark Age Ahead" by Jane Jacobs

Book: "Collapse: How Societies Choose To Fail or Succeed" by Jared Diamond

Book: "Underworld: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization" by Graham Hancock

Book: "The Dragons of Expectation: Reality and Delusion in the Course of History" by Robert Conquest

Book: "Antiquity: The Civilization of the Ancient World" by Norman F. Cantor

Book: "The Heritage Of World Civilizations, Fourth Edition" by Albert M. Craig et al.

Book: "The Great War For Civilization: The Conquest of the Middle East" by Robert Fisk

Book: "Civilization One: The World Is Not As You Thought It Was" by C. Knight & A. Butler

Book: "Alexandria Rediscovered" by Jean-Yves Empereur

Book: "Mesopotamia: The Invention of the City" by Gwendolyn Leick

Book: "Civilizations" by Felipe Fernandez-Arnesto

Book: "The Aggression of Civilization" Ed by Vine Deloria Jr.

Book: "Civilization and its Discontents" by Sigmund Freud

Book: "The Conquest of Water" by Jean-Pierre Goubert

Book: "the Arab Connection" by Dr. Kasem Khaleel

Book: "The Seventy Great Mysteries of the Ancient World: Unlocking the Secrets of Past Civilizations" Ed by Brian M. Fagan

Book: "SeaFaring & Civilization: Maritime Perspectives on World History" by Phillip de Souza

Book: "The City of Man" by Pierre Manent

Book: "Key Moments In Architecture: The Evolution of the City" by Graham vickers

Book: "Vanished Civilizations" ed by Allison Bravington et al

Book: "A Forest Journey: The Story of Wood and Civilization" by John Perlin

Book: "Heroes of History: A Brief History of Civilization from Ancient Times to the Dawn of the Modern Age" by Will Durant

Book: "The Death and Life of Great American Cities" by Jane Jacobs

Book: "Start Reclaiming: Creating Livable Streets and Vibrant Communities" by David Engwicht

Book: "The Great Civilizations of the East: The Illustrated History Encyclopedia" By Daud Ali

Book: "Angkor and the Khmer Civilization" by Michael D. Coe

Book: "Ancient Rome: History of a Civilization That Ruled The World" by A.M. Liberati & F. Bourbon

Book: "Athens: A Portrait of the City in the Golden Age" by Christian Meier

Book: "Wonders of the World: 100 Great Man-Made Treasures of Civilization" by R. Burton & R. Cavendish

Book: "The Ancient American Civilizations" by Friedrich Katz

Book: "Civilization and It's Enemies: The Next Stage of History" by Lee Harris

© 2001




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